NAD+ is Crucial for DNA Repair — What are Your NAD+ Levels?
As medical science progresses, molecules within the human body are being explored for their roles in health and longevity. One of the most promising markers of life and healthspan is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+).
NAD+ is a vitamin-derived coenzyme contained in every living cell. This remarkable coenzyme has revealed its significant role in catalyzing reactions for over 400 enzymes. Moreover, NAD+ levels decline during the aging process. Alterations in NAD+ levels are found in nearly every age-related disease, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Fortunately, research has found that strategies to increase NAD+ levels have demonstrated beneficial effects in preclinical settings. (Katsyuba, 2020)
One of the most astonishing properties of NAD+ is the role it plays in DNA repair. Indeed, NAD+ acts upon cellular metabolism both as a cofactor for many redox reactions and as a substrate for sirtuins and PARPs. (Fouquerel, 2014). Sirtuins and PARPs are proteins heavily involved in processes such as aging, programmed cell death, and DNA repair. (Herceg, 2001)
As a result of NAD+’s critical role on PARPs and sirtuins, changes in NAD+ levels have a significant effect on mechanisms of DNA repair. Consequently, by affecting both the structure of chromatin alongside post-translational protein modification, NAD+ depletion is highly implicated in cancer biology and inflammatory diseases. (Fouquerel, 2014)
A cause of NAD+ depletion as we age is due to being used up in processes involved in DNA repair. Polymerase1 (PARP1), a NAD+-dependent enzyme, is a nuclear protein and sensor of DNA damage; when DNA damage is detected, PAR synthesis increases up to 500-fold, depleting a large amount of NAD+ in the process (Luo, 2012). Along with PARP1, other vital components in DNA repair dependant on NAD+ like the enzyme SIRT1, a vital component in DNA repair, longevity, and metabolism, also deplete NAD+ (Fang, 2016).
Considering the major role NAD+ plays in DNA repair and other vital processes, it would be wise to determine the levels of NAD+ in our bodies. By doing this, we may obviate the debilitating issues heavily associated with lower levels. AgingSOS™ is a blood test that identifies NAD levels and targets your aging to empower you to make decisions that most benefit your health.
All of the biomarkers targeted by this test (including NAD+) are actionable (capable of being altered by supplementation or lifestyle changes) hence, it should not be neglected.
References and Works Cited
Katsyuba E, Romani M, Hofer D, Auwerx J. NAD+ homeostasis in health and disease. Nat Metab. 2020 Jan;2(1):9–31. doi: 10.1038/s42255–019–0161–5. Epub 2020 Jan 20. PMID: 32694684.
Fouquerel, E. & Sobol, R. W. ARTD1 (PARP1) activation and NAD(+) in DNA repair and cell death. DNA Repair. (Amst.) 23, 27–32, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2014.09.004 (2014).
Herceg Z, Wang ZQ (June 2001). “Functions of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in DNA repair, genomic integrity and cell death”. Mutation Research. 477 (1–2): 97–110. doi:10.1016/s0027–5107(01)00111–7. PMID 1137669
Luo X, Kraus WL. On PAR with PARP: cellular stress signaling through poly(ADP-ribose) and PARP-1. Genes Dev. 2012; 26(5):417–32; PMID:22391446; http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.183509.111
Fang EF, Scheibye-Knudsen M, Chua KF, Mattson MP, Croteau DL, Bohr VA. Nuclear DNA damage signalling to mitochondria in ageing. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2016; 17(5):308–21; PMID:26956196
Authored by John Ryan
John Ryan is an independent writer and an avid enthusiast of blockchain technology. He received his University education at Northern Michigan University, as a history major, where he was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa Society for academic excellence. While in Michigan, he also trained as an athlete at the United States Olympic Education Center, where he achieved the status of a multiple-time University All-American in Greco-Roman wrestling. He has authored several plays and a collection of poetry. Some of his major areas of interests includes: Finance, Literature, and Religious Studies.
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